Frank Searle (photographer)

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 Frank Searle (born Eric Frank Searle; 18 March 1921 – 26 March 2005) was a photographer who studied the disputed existence of the Loch Ness Monster. He took up residence at Loch Ness in 1969 living a frugal existence in a tent looking for definitive proof of the monster’s existence. Eventually photographs began to appear from 1972 onwards and earned Frank a degree of fame as a monster hunter.

 However, as the detail of the pictures increasingly improved with time, people began to suspect they were fakes. The matter was finally exposed in 1976 when the Scottish Sunday Mail carried a centre-page article proving that one of his photographs was taken from a postcard showing an Apatosaurus. Another picture was also proven to be a wooden post at a pier that was covered with cloth to make it monster-like.

 As his reputation declined, he was involved with some skirmishes with other monster researchers which eventually led to a failed molotov cocktail attack on one of their boats. Searle denied any involvement in the matter and was never charged over it. Eventually he left the loch for good in the early 1980s to allegedly embark on a treasure hunting expedition.

 Some years later he was eventually tracked down by Andrew Tullis for his documentary The Man who Captured Nessie. Searle had been living in a bedsit in Fleetwood, Lancashire, but had died only a few weeks before.

 Most Nessie analysts agree that although he added some colour and personality to the Loch Ness story, his contribution overall was negative.

Esteban Sarmiento

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 Esteban Sarmiento is a primatologist and biologist. He is noted for his work in primate anthropology and for appearing on the Monster Quest television series.


 Sarmiento earned a biological anthropology PhD in 1985, and from then until at least 2008 he worked as a research associate at the American Museum of Natural History. His main field of study is the skeletons of hominoids, both extinct and living species. From 2002 to 2004 he was a Fulbright scholar teaching physiology at Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique.

 Presently he heads the Human Evolution Foundation whose main goal is to understand humanity’s place in nature. and fight to end to racial discrimination at Public Universities.

 Sarmiento is one of the few mainstream experts to give serious attention to cryptozoology, particularly reports of Bigfoot. Sarmiento does not suggest that the existence of Bigfoot has been established, but that its existence is possible and that claims and evidence deserve careful scrutiny. He has stated: “If the animal in the P&G film [Bigfoot] is real, this animal is exceedingly human-like … It would be our closest relative on earth.” He has appeared on several episodes of the History Channel series Monster Quest discussing Bigfoot and other “cryptids.”

Legal actions against racial discrimination at public Universities

 In his quest to confront racial discrimination at US public institutions Sarmiento filed a lawsuit against Queens College claiming that the college’s refusal to grant him interviews in 1999 and 2000 for associate professor employment was motivated by racial discrimination, and thus a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 2005, a U.S. District Court ruled against Sarmiento. The court noted that while Sarmiento was qualified for the job, Queens College demonstrated that other candidates were more qualified, and race was not a factor in their decisions. For example, among the job requirements was an emphasis on human anatomy and anthropology, while Sarmiento’s emphasis had been on non-human primates. The court also ruled that Sarmiento submitted inadequate syllabi, and and other candidates had superior teaching experience. Later in 2005, an appeals court upheld the district court decision. In reaching its ruling the judge engaged in a result driven decision. Although the judge claimed Sarmiento had an emphasis on non-human primates Sarmiento had more publications on human anatomy than any other candidate. In fact the person that was given the position has never authored a paper on human anatomy. Moreover Sarmiento had more teaching experience in human anatomy than any of the other candidates that applied for the position including 2 years teaching at Queens College. Finally, Sarmiento had sent a full application as requested in the advertisement. All of the judge’s claims as to the shortcomings of Sarmiento’s record were unfounded and not supported by the evidence submitted to the court. Moreover, the judge did not explain why Sarmiento’s application had been so wrongly evaluated by Queens Anthropology department’s internal memorandum so that they had erred in summarizing three-quarters of Sarmiento’s qualifications with all the errors impacting his application negatively and never positively.

 Upon hearing that Montclair University had interviewed two black women to fulfill minority quotas but had no intentions of hiring them, Sarmiento filed a similar lawsuit against Montclair State University. Again he alleged racial discrimination as a factor in a 2001 hiring procedure. The court ruled that Montclair established that another applicant was better qualified for the position due to her specialty in medical anthropology, and that race was not a factor in Montclair’s hiring decision. While the candidate Montclair ultimately hired did not have her PhD at the time of interviews, she was scheduled to earn her doctorate by the time employment would have begun, in line with Montclair hiring procedure. Once again the court engaged in a result driven decision. None of the candidates chosen to interview, which in this case were two black and one white women had a Ph.D. at the time of the interview. Moreover, the white woman chosen for the position did not have a Ph.D. at the time she began working, working for nearly a full year before receiving a Ph.D. A Ph.D was a clear requirement on the Montclair circular advertising the position. The judge dismissed the case on a technicality, i.e. the expert witness statement and opinion outlining why Sarmiento was a better fit for the advertised position was not notarized and could not be accepted. Although the defense had not objected to the document being entered the judge did not allow the plaintiff to resubmit the notarized opinion and disregarded it in the court’s decision.

 With the burden of discrimination the court placed on Sarmiento to bring both cases to trial no discrimination suit could ever prevail. Among other things, the courts disregarded the qualifications the circular advertising the position requested and the expert witness testimony as to Sarmiento’s superior qualifications. The courts, therefore, offer no relief for employment discrimination at public universities and institutions. Notably, no such suits have gone to trial, although it is clear from hiring percentages at these institutions that discrimination exists. Sarmiento is committed to bringing racial discrimination at public institutions to light. He sees a future in which the courts will offer the right to a trial and relief to victims of racial discrimination at public institutions.

Ivan T. Sanderson

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 Ivan Terence Sanderson (January 30, 1911 – February 19, 1973) was a biologist and writer born in Edinburgh, Scotland, who became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Sanderson is remembered for his nature writing and his interest in cryptozoology and paranormal subjects. He also wrote fiction under the name Terence Roberts.


 Born in Scotland, Sanderson traveled widely in his youth. His father, who manufactured whisky professionally, was killed by a rhinoceros while assisting a documentary film crew in Kenya in 1925.

 As a teenager, Sanderson attended Eton College, and, at 17 years old, began a yearlong trip around the world, focusing mostly on Asia. Sanderson earned a B.A. in zoology, with honours, from Cambridge University faculty of Biology, where in the same faculty he later earned M.A. degrees in botany and ethnology.

 He became famous claiming to have seen a Kongamato, after being attacked by a creature he described as “the Granddaddy of all bats”. Sanderson conducted a number of expeditions as a teenager and young man into tropical areas in the 1920s and 1930s, gaining fame for his animal collecting as well as his popular writings on nature and travel.

 During World War II, Sanderson worked for British Naval Intelligence, in charge of counter-espionage against the Germans in the Caribbean, then for British Security Coordination, finally finishing out the war as a press agent in New York City. Afterwards, Sanderson made New York his home and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. In the 1960s Sanderson lived in Knowlton Township in northwestern New Jersey, before moving to Manhattan. He died in 1973.

Nature writing

 Sanderson published: Animal Treasure, a report of an expedition to the jungles of then-British West Africa; Caribbean Treasure, an account of an expedition to Trinidad, Haiti, and Surinam, begun in late 1936 and ending in late 1938; and Living Treasure, an account of an expedition to Jamaica, British Honduras (now Belize) and the Yucatan.

 Illustrated with Sanderson’s drawings, they are accounts of his scientific expeditions. Sanderson collected animals for museums and scientific institutions, and included detailed studies of their behaviors and environments. He also killed some for study.

Media appearances

 In 1948 Sanderson began appearing on American radio and television, speaking as a naturalist and displaying animals. In 1951 he appeared with Patty Painter on the world’s first regularly scheduled colour TV series, The World is Yours. Sanderson also provided the introduction for 12 episodes of the 1953 television wildlife series Osa Johnson’s The Big Game Hunt a.k.a. The Big Game Hunt featuring the films of Martin and Osa Johnson.

 Sanderson’s television appearances with animals led to what he termed his “animal business.” Initially Sanderson borrowed or rented animals from zoos in the New York metropolitan area for his TV appearances. In 1950 at a meeting of the National Speleological Society, he met 20-year-old Edgar O. (“Eddie”) Schoenenberger, who by 1952 was his assistant (and ultimately partner) in his animal business. Schoenenberger suggested that, instead of “renting” animals, they should purchase and house them, and gain some additional income by displaying them in a zoo. Sanderson purchased in November 1952 the “Frederick Trench place” a 250-year-old farmhouse, outbuildings and 25 acres (100,000 m2) of land a short ways from the ultimate location of the zoo between the communities of Columbia and Hainesburg. He refurbished and expanded moving 200 of his rarest animals to a barn nearby so he could keep close watch on them. Then, in the spring of 1954, he established “Ivan Sanderson’s Jungle Zoo” (and Laboratory), a permanent, summer, roadside attraction near Manunka Chunk, White Township, Warren County, New Jersey. Sanderson also developed and deployed winter traveling exhibits of rare and unusual animals for sports shows and department stores. A fire on the night of Tuesday or early morning hours of Wednesday, February 2, 1955 destroyed his collection of 45 rare animals kept in a barn at his New Jersey home. Ivan Sanderson’s Jungle Zoo was flooded out by the Delaware River during the floods caused by Hurricane Diane on August 19, 1955.

 Sanderson often traveled from his New Jersey home to his New York apartment to visit friends and to appear on radio and television programs.

 During the 1950s and 1960s, Sanderson was widely published in such journals of popular adventure as True, Sports Afield, and Argosy, as well as in the 1940s in general-interest publications such as the Saturday Evening Post. In the 1950s, Sanderson was a frequent guest on John Nebel’s paranormal-themed radio program. He was a frequent guest on The Garry Moore Show, where he brought live specimens on talk shows. His friend and fellow cryptozoologist Loren Coleman says that Sanderson could be skeptical. In “Mysterious America,” Coleman writes that Sanderson discovered the 1909 “Jersey Devil” incident was an elaborate real estate hoax.

Paranormal work

 Sanderson was an early follower of Charles Fort. Later he became known for writings on topics such as cryptozoology, a word Sanderson coined in the early 1940s, with special attention to the search for lake monsters, sea serpents, Mokèlé-mbèmbé, giant penguins, Yeti, and Sasquatch.

 Sanderson founded the Ivan T. Sanderson Foundation in August 1965 on his New Jersey property, which became the Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained (SITU) in 1967. SITU was a non-profit organization that investigated strange phenomena ignored by mainstream science.

Robert H. Rines

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 Robert Harvey Rines (August 30, 1922 – November 1, 2009) was an American lawyer, inventor, musician, and composer. He is perhaps best known for his efforts to find and identify the Loch Ness Monster.


 Rines was born August 30, 1922 in Boston, Massachusetts. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from M.I.T. in 1943, a Juris Doctor from Georgetown University in 1946, and a Ph.D. from National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan in 1972. During World War II Rines served as an Army Signal Corps officer and helped develop the Microwave Early Warning System.

 He held numerous U.S. patents on a wide variety of subjects. Although various on-line sources give their number as 80, 100, and even 200, the list published by the Franklin Pierce Law Center gives their number as 81, and 3 additional ones (Nos. 6,175,326, 7,314,178, and 7,392,192) can also be found in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office records. However, 12 of those in the larger list are referred to as “applications only”, leaving 72 actually issued U.S. patents.

 He was a renowned intellectual property lawyer, and in March 2004 received the Boston Patent Law Association “Lifetime Achievement Award” for his contributions in the field of intellectual property. Rines also was inducted as member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1994 and the U.S. Army Signal Corps Wall of Fame. He was the founder of the Franklin Pierce Law Center, a private law school located in Concord, New Hampshire, and the Academy of Applied Science, a Massachusetts and New Hampshire based organization dedicated to stimulating the interest of high school students in science, technology, and inventions. He was a lecturer at Harvard University and M.I.T. and a member of the Technical Advisory Board of the U.S. Department of Commerce.

 Rines was also an accomplished musician and composer. At age eleven he played a violin duet with Albert Einstein at a summer camp in Maine. As a composer he wrote music for both Broadway and off-Broadway shows, including Blast and Bravos, a musical based on the life of H. L. Mencken. He also composed scores for O’Casey’s Drums Under the Windows, O’Neill’s Long Voyage Home, and Strindberg’s Creditors. He shared an Emmy Award with playwright Paul Shyre in 1987 for the television and later Broadway play Hizzoner the Mayor.

 His philanthropic activities included establishing the GREAT Fund, providing educational grants for a large extended family in perpetuity.

 In May 2008 Rines retired from his position at M.I.T. after 45 years. He died November 1, 2009 at the age of 87.

Quest for “Nessie”

 During a visit to Scotland in 1972, Rines reported seeing “a large, darkish hump, covered … with rough, mottled skin, like the back of an elephant” in Loch Ness. Over the next 35 years he mounted numerous expeditions to the loch and searched its depths with sophisticated electronic and photographic equipment, mostly of his own design. While his investigations produced multiple theories and several tantalizing photographs, he was unable to produce sufficient evidence to convince the scientific community of the existence of the fabled monster. For this he received the Dinsdale Memorial Award in 2004.

Nick Redfern

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 Nicholas “Nick” Redfern, born 1964 in Pelsall, Walsall, Staffordshire, is a British best-selling author, Ufologist and Cryptozoologist now living in Dallas, Texas, United States.

 Redfern is an active advocate of official government disclosure of UFO information, and has worked to uncover thousands of pages of previously classified Royal Air Force, Air Ministry and Ministry of Defence files on unidentified flying objects (UFOs) dating from the Second World War from the Public Record Office and currently works as a feature writer and contributing editor for Phenomena magazine.

 His 2005 book, Body Snatchers in the Desert: The Horrible Truth at the Heart of the Roswell Story, purports to show that the Roswell crash may have been military aircraft tests using Japanese POWs, suffering from progeria or radiation effects.


 Redfern attended Pelsall Comprehensive School in Pelsall from 1976 to 1981. He also worked at Dixons paint suppliers with another ufologist Martin Lenton.

 Redfern joined a rock music and fashion magazine Zero in 1981; where he trained in journalism, writing, magazine production and photography, later going on write freelance articles on UFOs during the mid-1980s.

 From 1984 until 2001 he worked as a freelance feature writer for the Daily Express, People, Western Daily Press and Express & Star newspapers, as well as a full-time feature writer for Planet on Sunday. Between 1996 and 2001 he worked as a freelance journalist for the British newsstand magazines The Weekender, Animals, Animals, Animals, Pet Reptile, Military Illustrated, Eye-Spy, The Unopened Files and The X-Factor.

 Between 1996 and 2000 Redfern signed a three-book publishing deal with Simon & Schuster of London for the publication of A Covert Agenda: The British Government’s UFO Top Secrets Exposed (1997), The FBI Files: The FBI’s UFO Top Secrets Exposed (1998) and Cosmic Crashes: The Incredible Story of the UFOs That Fell to Earth (2000). These books were published in the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, Poland, Australia, New Zealand and Portugal.

 In 2003 Paraview-Pocket Books New York published Nick Redfern’s book Strange Secrets: Real Government Files on the Unknown in May of that year. And, in March 2004 Paraview-Pocket Books, New York, publish his book Three Men Seeking Monsters: Six Weeks in Pursuit of Werewolves, Lake Monsters, Giant Cats, Ghostly Devil Dogs, and Ape-Men. This book tells the story of his relationship with Jonathan Downes and Richard Freeman of the Centre for Fortean Zoology, and has been optioned by Universal Studios. Redfern has run the U.S. branch of the Centre for Fortean Zoology since 2002.

 Redfern has appeared on a variety of television programmes in the United Kingdom, including The Big Breakfast; Channel 5 News; and GMTV and works on the lecture circuit, both in the UK and overseas, and has appeared in internationally syndicated shows discussing the UFO phenomenon. He also appeared on a show in the third season of Penn & Teller: Bullshit!, titled “Ghost Busters”. He is also a regular on the History Channel programs Monster Quest and UFO Hunters as well as National Geographic Channels’s Paranormal and the Syfy channel’s Proof Positive.

 In 2007 Universal Studios bought the rights to Redfern’s book, “Three Men Seeking Monsters: Six Weeks in Pursuit of Werewolves, Lake Monster, Giant Cats, Ghostly Devil Dogs and Ape-Men” in the hopes of making a movie from it.

 He has been identified as a member of an informal group of friends often called others as the “Paranormal Rat Pack” and “The Cabal”; other members are filmmaker Paul Kimball, and authors Greg Bishop, and the late Mac Tonnies.

 In 2012, Nick Redfern has expanded his talents to taking on the role of on-air radio talk-show host of a Paranormal themed Internet Radio show EPIC Voyages Radio produced by the Inception Radio Network.


Cosmic Crashes by Nick Redfern – ISBN 0-671-03306-9
A Covert Agenda: The British Government’s UFO Top Secrets Exposed by Nick Redfern — ISBN 1-931044-70-8
Strange Secrets by Nick Redfern and Andy J. Roberts — ISBN 0-7434-6976-3
Body Snatchers in the Desert: The Horrible Truth at the Heart of the Roswell Story by Nick Redfern — ISBN 0-7434-9753-8
The F.B.I. Files by Nick Redfern – ISBN 0-684-86834-2
Three Men Seeking Monsters by Nick Redfern — ISBN 0-7434-8254-9
On The Trail Of The Saucer Spies by Nick Redfern — ISBN 1-933665-10-6
Celebrity Secrets: Official Government Files on the Rich and Famous by Nick Redfern — ISBN 1-4165-2866-0
Man-Monkey – In Search of the British Bigfoot by Nick Redfern — ISBN 1-905723-16-4
Memoirs of a Monster Hunter: A Five-Year Journey in Search of the Unknown by Nick Redfern — ISBN 1-56414-976-5
The NASA Conspiracies by Nick Redfern — ISBN 1-60163-149-9
Policing the UFO by Nick Redfern and Irene Botts

 In a 2002 interview, Redfern stated that “Andy Roberts and I have a book coming out next year on an alleged UFO crash incident in Wales in 1974.” This relates to the Berwyn Mountain UFO incident.