Anti-Semitism has, from the Middle Ages, frequently taken on characteristics of conspiracy theory. Anti-Semitic canards continue to circulate. In medieval Europe it was widely believed that Jews poisoned wells, had killed Jesus, and consumed the blood of Christians in their rituals (despite the fact that human and animal blood are not kosher).
In the second half of the 19th century conspiracists claimed that Jews and/or Freemasons were plotting to establish control over the world. The best-known text alleging the existence of this Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory is The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. A more modern manifestation of such ideas is the theory of a Zionist Occupation Government (ZOG).
Various conspiracy theories have been advanced regarding Jews and banking, including the theory that world banking is dominated by the Rothschild family, that Jews control Wall Street, and that Jews control the U.S. Federal Reserve System. A related theory is that Jews control Hollywood or the news media.
Most Holocaust denial claims imply, or openly state, that the Holocaust is a hoax arising out of a deliberate Jewish conspiracy to advance the interests of Jews at the expense of other peoples, and to justify the creation of the State of Israel. For this reason, Holocaust denial is considered to be an anti-Semitic conspiracy theory.